Although the U.S. and South Korea recorded their first official COVID-19 case on the identical day, January 20, 2020, there have been notable variations in how every nation would finally tackle what has grow to be the world’s most extreme pandemic since 1918.
Yoonjung Lee, Pharm.D., Ph.D., a pharmacy preceptor and pharmaceutical sciences researcher on the Texas Tech College Well being Sciences Heart (TTUHSC) Jerry H. Hodge College of Pharmacy, stated she was shocked at how South Korea successfully managed the pandemic with out the enterprise shutdowns and lockdowns that occurred in China, the U.S. and plenty of European international locations.
I’m amazed at how the Korean authorities had immediate and efficient public well being interventions to not solely tackle COVID-19, but in addition to handle COVID-19-vulnerable populations concurrently. That could possibly be why the incidences of COVID-19 instances drastically decreased towards the late part of our research.”
Yoonjung Lee, Pharm.D, Ph.D, Pharmacy Preceptor and Pharmaceutical Sciences Researcher, Texas Tech College Well being Sciences Heart
The research Lee referred to is one which she and a bunch of researchers lately performed to develop a methodological framework for figuring out pockets of COVID-19-vulnerable populations by way of using socioeconomic standing (SES) and epidemiological determinants. They then utilized information taken from South Korea’s response to COVID-19 to operationalize and display the worth of the framework.
Different members of the analysis group included Principal Investigator David O. Carpenter, M.D., and first creator Bayarmagnai Weinstein, M.D., MPH, from the College of Albany; Alan R da Silva, Ph.D., (College of Brasília); Dimitrios E. Kouzoukas, Ph.D., (Edward Hines, Jr. VA Hospital); Tanima Bose, Ph.D., (Ludwig-Maximilian College of Munich); Gwang-Jin Kim, Ph.D., (College of Freiburg-Germany); Paola A. Correa, Ph.D., (Howard Hughes Medical Institute); Santhi Pondugula, Ph.D., (College of Florida); and Jihoo Kim, M.S., (Hanyang College-Seoul).
Their research, “Precision Mapping of COVID-19 Weak Locales by Epidemiological and Socioeconomic Threat Elements, Developed Utilizing South Korean Information,” was revealed Jan. 12 within the Worldwide Journal of Environmental Analysis and Public Well being.
In earlier analysis performed throughout and after newer, and fewer extreme pandemics similar to SARS (Extreme Acute Respiratory Syndrome), swine flu (H1N1) and MERS (Center East Respiratory Syndrome), investigators had outlined a niche in how these diseases have been detected and handled amongst differing populations. These populations thought-about to be socioeconomically deprived appeared to bear the brunt of the illnesses whereas these populations thought-about to be extra prosperous and educated have been considerably much less affected.
Due to these earlier research, Lee stated the analysis group believed there was the potential to scale back the outbreak of COVID-19 by using focused interventions. Nevertheless, these earlier research targeted solely on socioeconomic handpicked by their investigators. More moderen research additionally had supplied COVID-19 threat components however none had recognized COVID-19-vulnerable locales related to SES and epidemiological components particular sufficient to the virus.
“Certainly, the earlier research used SES variables based mostly on researchers’ preferences, no matter their COVID-19 relevance. Consequently, the SES measures throughout these research have been incomparable, limiting their usefulness,” she added.
Lee stated her group’s COVID-19 research recognized and used seven particular socioeconomic and epidemiologic components: well being care entry, well being habits, crowding, space morbidity, schooling, problem to social distancing and inhabitants mobility.
To make sure they captured details about the research inhabitants’s socioeconomic and inhabitants well being that was as full as attainable, Lee stated the group utilized Coleman’s Foundations of Social Principle, which mixes the noticed social actions of people with the rational idea of economists that contends people acts independently of each other and for their very own self-interest.
“Coleman’s Social Principle guided us to gather information in every of three elementary domains — materials, human and social capitals — that concertedly characterize every geographic unit’s SES and area-health standing within the research,” Lee defined.
Lee stated the group additional filtered the research’s variables by using Blumenshine’s conceptual mechanistic framework, which describes the potential causes of disparities within the U.S. throughout an influenza or respiratory an infection pandemic. It attributes these disparities to various ranges of publicity to the virus, variations in susceptibility to the illness and distinct variations in entry to well being care.
“That directed us to causally related variables to COVID-19, as they decide the probability of being uncovered to the virus agent, of contracting the illness upon publicity and of receiving well timed and efficient therapy after the illness has developed,” Lee stated.
Integrating Coleman’s Foundations of Social Principle and Blumenshine’s mechanistic framework helped the analysis group formulate a common SES definition and choose SES indicators that have been mechanistically and casually related to COVID-19 well being outcomes. The event of this methodological framework made this analysis distinctive as a result of it allowed the group to determine COVID-19-vulnerable locales by way of their related SES and epidemiological determinants.
“By this strategy, we may have common SES variables with acceptable generalizability and methodological capability,” Lee stated. “Consequently, this helped make our research’s regression mannequin stronger and extra correct by utilizing SES variables that have been related to COVID-19.”
Lee stated the importance of the analysis is that it gives a methodological framework and precision mapping methodology that’s globally replicable for COVID-19 and future pandemics as a result of it gives strong SES measurements based mostly on the established theories for lowering bias from arbitrary information choices. The truth is, she contended, the novelty of the work speaks to the integrity of the research’s design and the statistical methodology of the analysis.
“Firstly, the mixed use of world and spatial statistical strategies elevated the accuracy as international fashions verified the geographical mannequin,” Lee stated. “Secondly, we collaborated on this research with Alan da Silva, who developed the destructive binomial extension of the geographically weighted regression. His software of this methodology eradicated the device’s inaccurate use whereas additionally optimizing the mannequin to check the information. Lastly, our research confirmed the development of the COVID-19 epidemic over three consecutive time-periods, which was a novel strategy on the time of the research.”
In utilizing the South Korea information, the research confirmed the chance of COVID-19 elevated with increased space morbidity, dangerous well being behaviors, crowding and inhabitants mobility. Different components that influenced threat included schooling, decrease social distancing and the power to entry well being. But, Lee stated, falling COVID-19 dangers and spatial shifts over three consecutive time durations (early-phase, middle-phase and late-phase) mirrored efficient public well being interventions in South Korea.
“This discovering could be completely different if different information is used, although the South Korean information, based mostly on our data, was essentially the most detailed and publicly out there information with open entry, which was the rationale why we used South Korean information in our research,” Lee stated. “Due to this fact, as depicted in our research, it’s essential to determine COVID-19-vulnerable locales related to SES and COVID-19 particular epidemiological components after which to focus on immediate and efficient public well being interventions towards these locales for efficient pandemic management.”
Weinstein, B., et al. (2021) Precision Mapping of COVID-19 Weak Locales by Epidemiological and Socioeconomic Threat Elements, Developed Utilizing South Korean Information. Worldwide Journal of Environmental Analysis and Public Well being. doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020604.